Last updated on September 22, 2022 at 00:04
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Open pit mining is one of humanity's greatest achievements in the constant search forvaluable mineralssuch as copper, silver, iron and gold. Describes the process of systematically excavating earth and excavating rocks and minerals for metal ores and transporting them by borrowing or open pit mining.
The open pit mining process (also called strip mining, strip mining, or strip mining) is non-extractive; This means that most of the time there is no need to dig a tunnel directly into the ground. Rather, it is a technique used when rocks and/or minerals are discovered near the surface.
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Due to a thinner layer or cover of sand, gravel, or scoria, these mineral-rich areas produce rich mineral resources. When miners find valuable minerals in hard rock underground veins covered by a thick or particularly heavy layer, they may resort to underground mining routines.
Open pit mining results in debris being collected from all sides and the bottom of a shaft, leaving a huge canyon-like hole. These "quarries" are open pit mines that produce natural stone and materials for buildings and structures.
Mining normally continues until all available mineral resources have been developed. Until then, though, open pit mines are getting bigger than they need to be. Their enormous size makes them suitable sites for landfills.
In most cases, water control is important to prevent the well from becoming a lake. The mine becomes vulnerable when located in an area prone to heavy rainfall and/or large amounts of precipitation. Open pit mining is an operation that relies on the excavation of an open pit mine as an effective way to access the desired minerals and materials.
It is a method of mining the surface of the earth to extract minerals and various substances present near the surface of the mining site. To see some popular mining kits that you can easily try yourselfClick here.
Advantages of open pit mining
Open pit mining (also known as strip mining) is the process of extracting ores, minerals and/orfossil fuelsthat occurs on the surface of a given work. Looking at all mining operations around the world, at least 40 percent of mining takes place on the surface, Greenpeace International reports.
Compared to underground mining methods, open pit mining is significantly more efficient.
One of the biggest benefits of open pit mining is the higher overall efficiency compared to deep pit mining methods. Mining takes place on the surface, so there are no space restrictions due to narrow galleries and shafts. Therefore, the mining rate is not affected, producing more ore at a faster rate.
Also, it's easier to try each "bench" or level within a pit to decide if you want to mine deeper. Surveyors can quickly analyze ore potential and yield, avoiding injuries and safety risks.
Mining companies obtain greater amounts of organic and inorganic materials when using open pit mining techniques due to the large mining vehicles that increase the amount of ore harvested per day. The end result is increased efficiency and reduced operating costs when mining in the open pit.
2.Safer mining statistics
The numbers are impressive. Statistics show that open pit mining is demonstrably safer than open pit mining. Any time you are involved in underground mining; There is always a risk. Whether from a landslide or the release of toxic gases, people can be killed or horribly injured.
There was a time when open pit mining was the most common way to extract ore, resulting in thousands of deaths.crumbles, toxic fumes, gas incidents and unintentional injuries related to equipment increased. More than 3,200 people died in 1907 as a result of mining accidents. Today, the following changes have drastically impacted the mining business, making it a much safer occupation:
- safest equipment
- Increased security awareness
the good points
Mining companies usually store the collected waste (uncovered or sterile) near the open pit mine. When the layer parallel to the earth's crust (the mineral horizon) is exposed, several banks (steps) are cut to facilitate tailings disposal.
Depending on the size of the mine, one or more paths can be cut into the sides, which is great for navigating the giant dirt/ore carriers.
Pumps are sometimes needed to draw water from the well, so the extra space for personnel and vehicles allows for smoother, faster results. Strip mining remains the preferred method of strip mining, offering better aeration, higher mineral production, and much more.higher earnings.
How do I open a mine?
Proper open pit mining begins and ends with careful planning. Your mission is to discover and extract valuable ores and ores. This means that large amounts of overburden must be excavated and moved. The focus is on collecting mineral deposits economically.
Carefully consider and choose the physical parameters of the project, and plan for mineral extraction and waste relocation so vehicles and drivers are available to both. Harvest schedules require careful planning because they are complex.
Scheduling requires you to make decisions that can cost the company huge sums of money.
Technical knowledge and experience are the key to a successful open pit operation. It is a daily lesson inBusiness, geology and mining engineering criteria. A bank, for example, is a bar that forms a single operating level.
The miners send the collected minerals and/or waste materials back to the bank, where the minerals or waste materials await being rearranged into successive layers, each of which is a bank. It takes planning and planning to operate multiple banks simultaneously; all at different locations and elevations throughout the mine.
Open pit mining is an efficient and economical way to extract minerals, ores, and coal. It is a reliable and much safer way to do "hard rock" mining for metallic ores like:
- uranium and other minerals
Proper planning must take into account environmental factors related to protection and advertising, which can negatively or positively affect profit margins. Begin with the first day of scanning and progress to include recovery.
Fundamentally, planning involves avoiding design errors rather than correcting them later.
This is critical given the cost of environmental protection and the impact of bad press on a mining operation. An experienced planner knows how to carefully consider the regulatory (legal) framework for mining.
Proactive management avoids the high cost of compliance by taking the law into account when designing or planning mining.
From the beginning of the open pit project planning phase, data collection and permitting, it is paramount to address the impact of mining on the environment. Starting with exploration, the core holes must be sealed and the site reclaimed. The experienced planner is familiar with effects such as:
- Air quality (dust and pollutants)
- water drainage and drainage
- Subsidence (the gradual subsidence or sinking of an area of land)
Waste processing is an important consideration that requires knowledge of the underground and surface infrastructure. EITHERplainYou must be familiar with the processing plant responsible for the minerals, the roads required for transportation and access to the mines and remote facilities, etc.
If the mining process results in degradation of surface or groundwater, they must be prepared to implement remedial and treatment measures that meet discharge standards.
The plan developed for the operation of the mine should include all engineering measures deemed necessary to address any environmental issues that may arise from initial data collection to mine closure, including restoration of excavated or disturbed surfaces. Recovery plans include:
- drainage control
- soil preservation
- garbage separation
- Erosion and Sediment Control
- Solid waste disposal
- fugitive dust control
- Restoration of waste and mined areas
- Effects of the collapse of the mine
- Vibration (induced by mining, processing, transportation, or sinking)
- Effects on surface and groundwater
The profitability of a mining operation and its economics are often determined by smart and effective planning and forecasting implemented by the mining company from the outset.
At the core of any responsible mining company is the desire to leave the land in a healthy and environmentally responsible state. Once the mining project is finished, the company will restore the disturbed area. Soil remediation includes stabilization of embankments through grading.
If the ore contains sulfides, the miner covers it with a layer of clay to prevent rain and oxygen from coming into contact with it, which could oxidize the sulfides, forming sulfuric acid. a phenomenon known as acid mine drainage.
The next step is to cover the area with soil and vegetation seeds to help bind the materials together. Finally, erosion occurs. The leaching process is slowed down due to the ability of the soil cover to protect the environment. Thus, the country does not suffer any damage from the acid orheavy years.
Due to the relatively short operation time of the large open pit mine, there are still no long-term studies or findings on the success of ground cover.
It could be hundreds of years before some areas where the waste was supposed to become "acid neutral" would no longer pollute the environment. Fencing of certain areas by a reputable mining company prevents cattle from feeding on the regenerating vegetation.
They then make the mine inaccessible by surrounding it with a fence. In many areas they have converted land into recreational parks or even residential communities.